Social benefits by programmes
Feminisation of care work
In Spain, 10% of women perform care work, by far exceeding the 5% of male
Some 34.8 of grandparents in Spain regularly care for their grandchildren,
a figure much higher than the European average.
Participation in welfare state benefits
Between 2008 and 2018, benefits for the elderly increased, whereas benefits
for families did not improve.
The effect of early retirement schemes on youth employment
Contradicting a fairly widespread idea, delaying exit from the labour
market does not reduce youth employment, but could actually boost it.
Child benefit design: the importance of refundable tax deductions
Child support benefits improve the economic situation of families and
appear to be positive for increasing fertility rates. How can they be
designed with efficiency?
Some 29% of Spaniards have a social position above that of their parents,
and over 40% believe they have risen above their grandparents on the social
In Spain, according to this indicator, it takes four generations to improve
the incomes of families with precarious finances.
The fertility rate in Spain is 1.23 children per woman, the second lowest
rate among European Union countries.