The difference between the average performances of students with a higher or lower socioeconomic level, in 2015 in Spain, was 80 points in the three core skills: reading (80), science and maths (82). This is equivalent to an estimated delay of two years of teaching (the registered advancement in one school year represents around 40 points in the tests).
What lies behind educational inequalities? Factors beyond students’ control
(such as gender, background, or parents’ financial or cultural status)
explain 32% of the differences in their academic performance.