The European innovation scoreboard offers a comparative evaluation based on eight innovation dimensions: the so-called “enablers” (human resources research systems and finance and support); the “firm activities” (firm investments linkages and entrepreneurship and intellectual assets); and the “outputs” (innovators and economic effects).
The duality between temporary and permanent contracts conditions the labour
market in Spain and causes differences in job security and income. What
impact does this have on people’s redistribution preferences?
Why does Spain present income inequality levels higher than the European
average? Differences in income between age groups and the concentration of
capital among the richest groups are some of the causes.
An experimental analysis of the preferred tax rates for different types of
taxes, across a variety of taxpayer income and inheritance assumptions, and
taking into account people’s perception of their own position in income
Things are becoming increasingly difficult for tax evaders, with the new
big data and artificial intelligence techniques that detect hidden wealth,
the abuse of aggressive tax engineering and money laundering.