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The impact of Dual Vocational Education and Training on labour market insertion in Catalonia

Samuel Bentolila, CEMFI; Caterina Calsamiglia, IPEG; Marcel Jansen, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Project selected in the Social Research 2020 call

Based on administrative data, this article analyses the impact that the introduction of Tertiary Dual VET has had on the labour market insertion of young people in Catalonia during the period 2018-2020. Dual VET is an educational model that allows students to spend more time as apprentices at companies than in School-based VET, and the companies themselves take charge of part of the training. After studying various dimensions of the labour performance of these young people during the twelve months following their graduation, it is found that Dual VET graduates work more days per year than School-based VET graduates, enjoy a higher labour income, work part-time less frequently and sign a permanent employment contract more often. These differences do not occur evenly across all fields but, even so, it is confirmed that the better labour market insertion of Dual VET graduates remains after taking into account the main individual characteristics.
Key points
  • 1
       Dual VET has experienced very slow growth since its introduction in Spain in 2012. During the 2020-2021 academic year, it represented no more than 5.5% of students enrolled. Catalonia, with 10% of enrolled students in Dual VET is well above the national average.
  • 2
       Dual VET graduates and those of School-based VET are very similar, but in Dual VET there is a lower proportion of women and a slightly higher fraction of students born outside of Spain. In addition, they also have more job experience at the start of their studies. Dual VET is taught with greater frequency at public schools.
  • 3
       Tertiary VET (it includes both tracks) graduates only work 168 days equivalent to full-time work per year. Dual VET graduates work 27 days more per year than School-based VET students and 41 full-time equivalent days. They also work part-time less frequently and more often with a permanent contract.
  • 4
       The average labour income for VET graduates is low (8,354 euros per year). The average daily wage of Dual VET and School-based VET graduates is very similar, but Dual VET graduates earn 28% more because they work more days.
  • 5
       In some fields, the Dual VET graduates work, on average, up to 70 days more than School-based VET graduates.
  • 6
       After considering a set of individual characteristics, the differences in work performance between tracks remain, but they are smaller.
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