Technological change and universal basic income

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

Manuel Alejandro Hidalgo Pérez, Departamento de Economía, Métodos cuantitativos e Historia económica, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla.;

La cuarta revolución tecnológica implica una serie de cambios en los modos de producción –y, en consecuencia, en las relaciones laborales– que exigen nuevas medidas de protección social. A pesar de que no se espera la aparición de desempleo tecnológico, el cambio tecnológico sí parece abundar en un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. Es por ello, y ante estas perspectivas, por lo que el debate sobre una renta básica universal ha cobrado interés en el ámbito académico y no académico.
Key points
  • 1
       La explicación del aumento de la desigualdad ha de tener en cuenta la conjunción de tres factores: los cambios tecnológicos y productivos, el comercio internacional y las instituciones.
  • 2
       El cambio tecnológico parece estar favoreciendo una transferencia de rentas entre factores; es decir, entre los trabajadores y el resto de los factores productivos como el capital.
  • 3
       La polarización del empleo es la causa de la enorme desigualdad salarial.
  • 4
       La cuarta revolución Industrial abre un futuro incierto. Los modos de empleo, los tipos de trabajo, la educación, la desigualdad y nuestras relaciones como individuos se verán afectados.
  • 5
       Las propuestas de profundizar en el desarrollo de los complementos a los ingresos de los más desfavorecidos por el cambio tecnológico mediante las transferencias públicas comienzan a ser seriamente consideradas. Frente a las rentas mínimas de inserción, o rentas complementarias condicionadas o de garantía de ingresos, asistimos a la irrupción de un debate sobre la posibilidad de aplicar una renta básica universal.

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