Human resources for research in Spain and Portugal
People who work in research are a pillar of the system. Are the working conditions of this sector favourable in Spain and Portugal or are they forcing a brain drain?
Science-business links in Portugal and Spain: untapped potential for innovation?
In Spain and Portugal, only 6% of PhD holders work in the business sector. There is a broad margin for improvement in the relationship between science and business.
Evolution of science and technology in Portugal and Spain
The European Union set a target for the business sector to invest 2% of GDP in R&D. How is the convergence of Spain and Portugal towards this goal progressing?
“Research can’t be simply turned on and off like a tap; it requires investment in the long term”
Andrew W. Wyckoff, the OECD’s current director of Science, Technology and Innovation, reviews the major challenges posed by the digital transformation in the economic, social and educational sphere.
The role of science and technology in the configuration of Spain and Portugal over the last five centuries
How has science developed in Spain and Portugal and how has it influenced the construction of the Iberian nations? The two books reviewed here analyse the subject.
Tools and resources for safeguarding ethics and improving integrity in scientific research
One of the great current challenges in research is process integrity and the reliability of results. What reforms are taking place in this area?
CaixaResearch Institute, a new health and life sciences research and innovation centre
International excellence, strong support for innovation and transfer and bringing science closer to society. CaixaResearch Institute symbolises the commitment of the ”la Caixa” Foundation to supporting biomedical research.
The Patient Innovation platform
Successful experiences such as the Patient Innovation Platform confirm that the future of innovation in health involves connecting patients, carers and other agents from the care sector.
The use of public engagement for technological innovation
What is society’s opinion regarding the possible impacts of science and technology? Establishing citizen participation mechanisms is necessary to generate confidence and detect points for improvement.
Changes in scientific assessment systems
How should science be evaluated? Does the possibility exist of using other criteria beyond bibliometric impacts, which value different facets of the social impact of research?
The Challenge-Driven Innovation programme
Challenge-Driven Innovation is a research funding programme that is pioneering in Europe due to its multidisciplinary, intersectoral and challenge-oriented focus.
Scientists and engineers by sex
Portugal, together with Denmark, is an exception within the framework of the EU-27 and has percentages of women scientists and engineers that slightly exceed the European average.
Direct (grants) and indirect (tax incentives) goverment support for business R&D
The model of governmental support for business R&D differs between Spain and Portugal, with a predominance of direct support in the case of Spain and indirect in that of Portugal.
PhD qualifications by different branches of knowledge and by sex
While the participation of female PhD holders in Portugal is situated above the EU‑27 average in all fields of knowledge considered, in Spain the participation of female PhD holders is situated below the European average in the fields of art, humanities and social sciences.
Expenditure on R&D by sectors
In 2019, the percentage of total public spending assigned to R&D was 1.24% in Spain and 0.82% in Portugal, both below the EU-27 average.
Innovative companies and business cooperation on R&D activities
In Spain and Portugal, the proportion of innovative companies, and the degree to which these collaborate with other companies and organisations, is below the EU-27 average.
Capacity for attracting international talent
Does Portugal attract more talent than Spain? In 2020, the attraction of international talent was situated below the European average (18.7%) in the case of Spain (17.2%) and above the average (29.1%) in that of Portugal.
Patent applications submitted to the European Patents Office
Despite growth in the last 10 years, the relative position of Spain and Portugal, with regard to patent applications, is a long way behind that of countries that are leaders in innovation.
Digital Economy and Society Index
Spain stands at the head of the countries of the EU-27 in the global computation of digital society indicators (connectivity, Internet use, etc). Portugal, however, is situated at the tail end.
Women researchers by sectors
Spain and Portugal are situated above the European average in percentage of women researchers in all sectors considered, although the lowest participation corresponds to the business sector and the highest, to the governmental sector.
Authorship of scientific publications, by sex
Who publishes most: men or women? The percentage of women that publish in the STEM areas in Spain and Portugal is higher than the European average, which reflects that the proportion of women researchers in the academic sector, in turn, exceeds the European average.
Who invents most: men or women? The proportion in Spain is one in every five inventors and in Portugal, one in every four. Do they exceed the European average?
Spain is among the leading countries in environmental innovation, while Portugal is in an intermediate position.