“We’re heading quietly towards a different welfare state from the one we know”

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Social benefits by programmes

Some 23.1% of Spain’s GDP is assigned to programmes for the care of elderly people, health, unemployment, disability, family, social exclusion and housing.

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Feminisation of care work

In Spain, 10% of women perform care work, by far exceeding the 5% of male carers.

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Intergenerational solidarity

Some 34.8 of grandparents in Spain regularly care for their grandchildren, a figure much higher than the European average.

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Participation in welfare state benefits

Between 2008 and 2018, benefits for the elderly increased, whereas benefits for families did not improve.

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The effect of early retirement schemes on youth employment

Contradicting a fairly widespread idea, delaying exit from the labour market does not reduce youth employment, but could actually boost it.

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Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder

Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder

Social Inclusion

Some 29% of Spaniards have a social position above that of their parents, and over 40% believe they have risen above their grandparents on the social ladder.

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Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society

Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society

Social Inclusion

In Spain, according to this indicator, it takes four generations to improve the incomes of families with precarious finances.

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Fertility rate

Fertility rate

Social Inclusion

The fertility rate in Spain is 1.23 children per woman, the second lowest rate among European Union countries.