Feminisation of care work

Feminisation of care work

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PhD qualifications by different branches of knowledge and by sex

While the participation of female PhD holders in Portugal is situated above the EU‑27 average in all fields of knowledge considered, in Spain the participation of female PhD holders is situated below the European average in the fields of art, humanities and social sciences.

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Vocational Training in Catalonia: academic performance, dual VET, and gender

While women continue to opt for more socially-oriented courses, this report points out that the occupations most necessary in 2030 will be those linked to the digital economy.

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Social benefits by programmes

Some 23.1% of Spain’s GDP is assigned to programmes for the care of elderly people, health, unemployment, disability, family, social exclusion and housing.

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Intergenerational solidarity

Some 34.8 of grandparents in Spain regularly care for their grandchildren, a figure much higher than the European average.

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Participation in welfare state benefits

Between 2008 and 2018, benefits for the elderly increased, whereas benefits for families did not improve.

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Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder

Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder

Social Inclusion

Some 29% of Spaniards have a social position above that of their parents, and over 40% believe they have risen above their grandparents on the social ladder.

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Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society

Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society

Social Inclusion

In Spain, according to this indicator, it takes four generations to improve the incomes of families with precarious finances.

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Fertility rate

Fertility rate

Social Inclusion

The fertility rate in Spain is 1.23 children per woman, the second lowest rate among European Union countries.