Methodological Appendix

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Methodological Appendix

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Job uncertainty and income redistribution preferences

The duality between temporary and permanent contracts conditions the labour market in Spain and causes differences in job security and income. What impact does this have on people’s redistribution preferences?

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Moving in and out of in-work poverty in Spain

Having a job is no longer sufficient for escaping poverty. Many households, especially with children, are experiencing in-work poverty associated with low wages or periods of inactivity.

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Poverty risk among working-age people in Spain

The risk of poverty among the working-age population increased by 20% during the Great Recession. What role is played by social transfers?

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Unemployment rate

Did you know that, in 2020, the youth unemployment rate tripled that of older people? Discover the figures from this indicator.

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Population occupation rates by age

Between 2010 and 2020, the occupation rate of the younger population decreased, while that of over 55s increased.

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Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder

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Percentage of people who view themselves as above their parents or grandparents on the social ladder


Social Inclusion

Some 29% of Spaniards have a social position above that of their parents, and over 40% believe they have risen above their grandparents on the social ladder.

Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society

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Number of generations necessary so that those born in families with low incomes can reach the average level of income in their society


Social Inclusion

In Spain, according to this indicator, it takes four generations to improve the incomes of families with precarious finances.

Fertility rate

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Fertility rate


Social Inclusion

The fertility rate in Spain is 1.23 children per woman, the second lowest rate among European Union countries.